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Tuesday, April 24, 2012

system software notes MCA/CSE/IT

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1. Explain about the Cray T3E architecture

Memory
Size-64 MB to 2 GB and 64 bit virtual address space.
Basic unit-byte
2byte-word,4 byte-long word,8 byte –quad word
Registers
-32 general purpose registers(R0-R31) –64 bits
-32 floating point registers(F0-F31)
-some status and control registers.
Data Format
-integers-word,long word,quad word integer format
-negative numbers-2’s complement form
-characters-ASCII code
-two different floating point datas
Instruction format
-5 different formats-32 bitds length
-6 bits opcode field
-some instructions having additional field is used(functional field)
Addressing modes
-immediate
-register direct
-PC relative mode(used for branch instructions)
-register indirect with displacement(load &store instructions in subroutine)
Instruction sets
-130 machine instructions
-only load & store instructions refers memory
I/O devices
-I/O operations are performed through multiple ports.
-one or more I/O channels are used.

2. Write in detail about Pentium Pro architecture.
Memory
-physical memory-basic unit byte-2 bytes word-4 bytes double word
-virtual memory-memory is a combination of segments.
-segments may some times divided into pages of equal size
Registers
-8 general purpose registers-32 bits
-EAX,EBX,ECX,EDX-data registers &EBP.ESP.EDI,ESI-address registers
-EIP –acts like a program counter
-FLAGS-gives status information
-6 segment registers(CS,DS,ES,FS,GS&SS)-16 bits
-CS-contains the address of currently executable instruction
-SS-address of stack segment
Data
integers-word,long word,quad word integer format
-negative numbers-2’s complement form
-characters-ASCII code
-packed and unpacked decimals are also used
-3 different floating point datas(single precision –24 bits 1S,7E,24F,
double precision-64 bits 1S,10E,53E,extended precision-80 bits (1S,15E,64F)
Instruction format
-3fields-flag field(gives the type of operation)-opcode field(gives the operation to be performed 1
or 2 byte)-operand field
Addressing modes
-immediate mode
-register mode
-direct mode-Target address = base register + C[X]*(scale factor)+displacement.

this formula gives 8 different addressing modes.
-relative mode(Target address = displacement + C[EIP])
Instruction Set
-Depends on the type of operand-3 types(register-register ,register-
memory, memory-memory instructions)
-Depends upon operation-arithmetic, data transfer, control, string
manipulation and bit manipulation instructions,
Input &Output
-1 byte is transferred at a time
-EAX acts as a accumulator
-input device to EAX,EAXto output device.

3. Explain the architecture of SIC/XE machine.
Draw neatly the Block diagram
Explain each block separately

4. Explain the General structure of IBM 370 system with a neat sketch and also explain the different
instruction formats used in it. Give one example for each instruction format.

Draw the general structure IBM 370
Mention all the instruction formats
SS instruction format
Give explanation for the formats with example

Opcode

0

L

B
D1
1
15 16 19 20

78

B
D2
2
31 32 35 36

It is a 6 byte instruction used to move L+I bytes data fro the storage location1 to
the storage location2.
Storage location1 = D1+[B1]
Storage location2 = D2+[B2]
Eg: MOV 60,400(3),500(4)

5. Mention the differences between SIC and SIC/XE.

SIC
Here only five registers are used.
A,X,L,SW and PC
There is no floating point hardware

Only one instruction format is used

Two different addressing modes are

used

6. Explain Ultra sparc architecture
SPARC-Scalable Processor Architecture
a.)Memory
-8 bit bytes,byte address
-2 consecutive bytes form half word
- 4 bytes –word,8 bytes –double word
-virtual address space-2^64 byte
b.) Registers:
-use 32 registers (r0-r31)
-r0 to r7-global
-general purpose register 32 bit long
-floating point computation using FPU

SIC/XE
Here there are nine
A,X,L,SW ,PC,B,S,T and F

Floating point hardware is used

Four different type of instruction
formats
Here there are many addressing
modes

c.)Data Formats
-stored as 8,16,32,64 bit binary numbers
-2’s complement for negative values
-big endian
d.)Instruction formats:
format 1,format 2,format 3
e.)Addressing modes
immediate,register direct mode
f.) Instruction set:
pipelined
conditional move instruction
g.)Input/Output:
load & store instruction.

UNIT-II

1. Explain in detail about basic assembler functions.
A simple SIC assembler
Assembler Algorithm
Data structures

2. Explain about the machine-Dependent Assembler features.
Instruction formats
Addressing modes
Program Relocation

3. Discuss in detail about the machine-Independent Assembler features.
Literals
Symbol-Defining Statements
Expressions
Program blocks
Control sections and Program Linking

4. Explain in detail about the assembler Design options.
One-pass Assembler
Multi-pass Assembler

5. Discuss in detail about MASM Assembler
Classes
Data Segments
Near jump
Far jump problem
Segments
MASM directives

UNIT-III

1. Explain in detail about basic loader functions.
Design of an Absolute Loader
A simple Bootstrap loader

2. Explain about Machine-Dependent Loader Features.
Relocation
Program Linking
Algorithm
Data structures

3. Discuss in detail about Machine-independent Loader features
Automatic Library Search
Loader Options

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4. Explain about the Loader Design Options.
Linkage Editor
Dynamic linking
Bootstrap loaders

5. Explain in detail about MS-DOS Linker
MS-DOS Assemblers and Compilers
MS-DOS LINK
MS-DOS Object modules

UNIT-IV

1. Explian in detail about the basic Macro Processor functions.
Macro Definition
Macro expansion
Algorithm
Data Structures

2. Discuss in detail about the Machine-independent macro processor features.
Concatenation of Macro parameters
Generation of unique labels
conditional macro Expansion
Keyword macro parameters

3.Explain about Macro Processor Design options
Recursive Macro Expansion
General purpose Macro Procesors
Macroprocessing within Language Translators

Explain in detail about MASM Macro Processor
Conditional assembly statements
MASM macro
Conditional statements

5. Explain in detail about ANSI C macro Language
Macro definitions with parenthesis
Macro expansion with parenthesis
Conditional compilation statements
Debugging statements

Explain in detail about the following
i)
Editing process
ii)
User Interface
Editing process:
Tasks
Select the part of the target document
Determine how to format
Specify and execute operations
Update
UI-Conceptual model
Operations on numbered sequence
Manipulate portions of the plane
Concerned i/p devices
Explain about the editor structure.
Diagram
Explanation
Discuss in detail about debugging functions and capabilities.
Different levels

Procedure
Branch
Individual Instructions
Examples

Explain in detail about the following
i)Relationships with other parts of the system
ii)User Interface criteria

i.Requirement-Always be available
Debugging
Application development time
Production environment
Coordinate with existing and future language compilers and interpreters
ii. simple organization
full screen displays and windowing systems
command language should be clear
On-line help facility

5. Explain about various software tools.

Text editors
Debugging systems

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